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Physicists make electrical nanolasers even smaller

Moreover, the volume occupied by SPPs in the nanolaser is 30 times smaller than the light wavelength cubed.

At the same time, unlike other electrically pumped nanolasers, the radiation is effectively directed to a photonic or plasmonic waveguide, making the nanolaser fit for integrated circuits," Dr. Dmitry Fedyanin from the Center for Photonics and 2D Materials at MIPT commented.

This size restriction also applies to on-chip lasers, which are necessary for converting information from electrical signals to optical pulses that carry the bits of the data.

Since optical communication relies on light -- electromagnetic waves with a frequency of several hundred terahertz -- it allows transferring terabytes of data every second through a single fiber, vastly outperforming electrical interconnects.

The approach, reported in a recent paper in Nanophotonics, enables coherent light source design on the scale not only hundreds of times smaller than the thickness of a human hair but even smaller than the wavelength of light emitted by the laser.

Image of article 'Mathematicians Finally Answer 2,000      -      Year      -      Old Question About Dodecahedrons'

Mathematicians Finally Answer 2,000 - Year - Old Question About Dodecahedrons

NCamero (Slashdot reader #35,481) brings some news from the world of 12-sided dodecahedrons: Quanta magazine reports that a trio of mathematicians has resolved one of the most basic questions about the dodecahedron.

The dodecahedron can.

Mathematicians studied dodecahedrons for over 2,000 years without solving the problem, reports Quanta magazine.

But now... Jayadev Athreya, David Aulicino and Patrick Hooper have shown that an infinite number of such paths do in fact exist on the dodecahedron.

Their paper, published in May in Experimental Mathematics, shows that these paths can be divided into 31 natural families.

Image of article 'Nasa investigating unexplained 'weakening' in Earth's magnetic field'

Nasa investigating unexplained 'weakening' in Earth's magnetic field

Nasa is monitoring a "small but evolving dent" in the Earth's magnetic field that could cause major problems for satellites and spacecraft.

Download the new Independent Premium app Sharing the full story, not just the headlines Download now Researchers refer to the gap as the "South Atlantic Anomaly, or SAA", and fear that it could cause significant problems for equipment that is used on Earth.

The Earth's magnetic field – and the changes it undergoes – are happening beneath our feet.

But the greatest concern about the magnetic fields for the time being is it effects on equipment away from Earth's surface.

Ordinarily, the magnetic field keeps the satellites that are around the Earth safe – including inhabited ones like the International Space Station – but the changes mean they lack the protection as they fly through the area covered by the SAA.

published particle physics technology
Image of article 'Video: A mesmerizing "blue whirl" could change the future of fossil fuels'

Video: A mesmerizing "blue whirl" could change the future of fossil fuels

Finding the "flow structure" of the blue whirl — The researchers used computer models to better understand the origin and structure of this bizarre blue flame.

Four years later, a new study confirms the blue whirl is unique and indicates the flame could be very useful in the pursuit of clean fuel consumption.

The blue whirl can burn many different types of liquid hydrocarbon fuels without producing harmful soot, all within the same and simple configuration."

Through looking at their simulated blue whirls, the researchers were able to identify that the flame was not in fact a single flame, but rather the culmination of three different types of flames: The nexus of these flames came together to form a fourth structure, a triple-flame, that appeared as the whirling blue flame.

They note that the blue whirl is also a new, potential way of "extracting energy from traditional fossil-fuel sources of energy in a clean energy way with minimal environmental impact."

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Image of article 'Could Spacecraft of the Future Be Powered By 'Lattice Confinement' Nuclear Fusion'

Could Spacecraft of the Future Be Powered By 'Lattice Confinement' Nuclear Fusion

The team believes that their method, called lattice confinement fusion, could be a potential new power source for deep space missions.

schwit1 writes: Researchers at NASA's Glenn Research Center have now demonstrated a method of inducing nuclear fusion without building a massive stellarator or tokamak.

"What we did was not cold fusion," says Lawrence Forsley, a senior lead experimental physicist for the project.

Cold fusion, the idea that fusion can occur at relatively low energies in room-temperature materials, is viewed with skepticism by the vast majority of physicists.

"This method of fusion offers a potentially reliable source for craft operating in places where solar panels may not be useable, for example.

Re-sampling: Amazing Results and Applications

We discuss concepts related to determining the optimum sample size, the optimum k in k-fold cross-validation, bootstrapping, new re-sampling techniques, simulations, tests of hypotheses, confidence intervals, and statistical inference using a unified, robust, simple approach with easy formulas, efficient algorithms and illustration on complex data.

This crash course features a new fundamental statistics theorem -- even more important than the central limit theorem -- and a new set of statistical rules and recipes.

This article presents statistical science in a different light, hopefully in a style more accessible, intuitive, and exciting than standard textbooks, and in a compact format yet covering a large chunk of the traditional statistical curriculum and beyond.

Instead, following the new trend after the recent p-value debacle (addressed by the president of the American Statistical Association), it is replaced with a range of values computed on multiple sub-samples.

Finally, our approach to this problem shows the contrast between the data science unified, bottom-up, and computationally-driven perspective, and the traditional top-down statistical analysis consisting of a collection of disparate results that emphasizes the theory.

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Image of article 'Who cares if unsupervised machine learning is supervised learning in disguise'

Who cares if unsupervised machine learning is supervised learning in disguise

You may have not noticed so far, but the general linear model (GLM) has been used as a versatile model with a versatile set of learning methods in order to create various supervised and unsupervised learning methods.

A neural network can be easily set to operate with supervision or unsupervised; most commonly known ones are supervised applications, such as image recognition in which humans initially provided labels about the categories to which each image belongs.

A piece of advice to data scientists: don’t be afraid to turn your supervised learning method into an unsupervised one or vice versa, if you see that this fits your problem.

In contrast, unsupervised methods, being open to error data coming from the outside world, can basically take advantage of the errors “computed” by the entire external universe – including the physical events underlying the actual phenomenon that these methods are trying to model (e.g., a real physical event of a machine becoming broken provides the training information for a predictive model of whether a machine will soon be broken).

Knowing that supervised and unsupervised methods can be seen as two different applications of the same general set of tools can be quite useful for creative problem solving in data science.

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Statistics Used in Data Science (A Dictionary in One Picture

Naming conventions are often quite different in statistics and data science, which causes quite a bit of confusion.

Part of the problem with naming conventions is that " science is the child of statistics and computer science” (Blei & Symth, 2017) .

In essence, data science then is the child of two parents who speak different languages.

A data scientist would call those features, a name borrowed from computer science.

All of Statistics: A Concise Course in Statistical Inference.

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Image of article 'Astronomers discover an exposed exoplanet core 730 light-years from Earth'

Astronomers discover an exposed exoplanet core 730 light-years from Earth

The researcher and his collaborator and co-author, Alexandre Emsenhuber, a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Arizona, scoured a large data set of possible planet formation and evolution models to see if any simulated planets possessed properties similar to those of TOI 849 b. “We were surprised to see, that indeed, yes, the simulations did contain planets similar to TOI-849b, but only in a very low frequency,” Mordasini explains.

“Alternatively, the gaseous envelope could have been ejected because of a giant impact or collision with another protoplanet also originally present in the system of TOI 849 b.” It was this latter scenario that Mordasini investigated for the Nature paper building upon a model of planetary evolution synonymous with the University of Bern.

When it got circularised via a tidal interaction with the host stat, the energy was injected into the planet, leading to the ejection of some or all of the gaseous envelope,” says Mordasini.

One possible explanation of the missing outer layers of TOI 849 b is that it was somehow stripped violently from the planet.

“A possible explanation could be that the planet carved a gap around its orbit into the gaseous disk, suppressing gas accretion,” the researcher says.

published particle physics technology

Compiling Trouble Shooting: Segmentation Fault and GCC Illegal Instruction

By default, GMP would detect the CPU type of the host machine at the configure stage to make use of the most recent instruction sets, which improves performance while sacrificing the portability of the binary.

We can use gdb to perform the compiling process and catch the illegal instruction on spot: belongs to BMI2 instruction set and the CPU of the machine in error doesn’t support this instruction set.

To locate the specific illegal instruction set and the component it belongs to, we need to reproduce the error.

See the details in this pull request: is the error message: Since it’s an internal compiler error, my assumption would be that an illegal instruction was encountered in g++ itself.

A while ago I’ve received feedback from Nebula Graph users that they encountered a compiler error: illegal instruction.

Image of article 'How to unc0ver a 0-day in 4 hours or less'

How to unc0ver a 0-day in 4 hours or less

This meant that unc0ver was the only process calling I next patched the code responsible for allocating the object that is double-freed in the original LightSpeed bug so that it would be allocated from The idea is that increasing the object's allocation size will cause unc0ver's exploit strategy to fail because it will try to replace the accidentally-freed , which simply cannot occur.

So, to summarize: the LightSpeed bug was fixed in iOS 12 with a patch that didn't address the root cause and instead just turned the race condition double-free into a memory leak.

Anyone who had remembered and understood the original LightSpeed bug could have easily identified this as a regression by reviewing XNU source diffs.

The idea was that if unc0ver relies on reallocating a allocation, then my app might grab that slot instead, which would likely cause the exploit strategy to fail and possibly result in a kernel panic.

The combination of the SockPuppet regression in iOS 12.4 and the LightSpeed regression in iOS 13 strongly suggests that Apple did not run effective regression tests on at least these old security bugs (and these were public bugs that got a lot of attention).

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Image of article 'Scientists Say Earth's Magnetic Field Might Be Changing Faster Than We Ever Imagined!'

Scientists Say Earth's Magnetic Field Might Be Changing Faster Than We Ever Imagined!

In a new study, scientists have suggested that the direction of Earth’s magnetic field might be changing about 10 times faster than previously thought.

It is known that the magnetic North and South poles flip around over a period of few hundred thousand years, which is a change in the Earth’s magnetic field.

Previously, these changes in the Earth’s magnetic field have been studied with the help of sediments, lava flows and human-made artefacts that have recorded its evolution.

SEE ALSO: Scientists Discover Unknown Structures Hidden Deep Within The Earth Now, in a new study, researchers have used computer simulations of the magnetic field generation and a recent reconstruction of time variations in Earth's magnetic field over the last 100,000 years to estimate the rate at which Earth’s magnetic field is changing.

Researchers, in their study, published in Nature Communications, found that changes in the direction of Earth’s magnetic field reached rates of up to 10 times greater than the fastest reported rate of variation at the moment was up to one degree per year.

published particle physics technology

New insights into van der Waals materials found

One of the interesting observations in their work is the breaking of a law that applies to all material systems.

This shows the lattice vibrations in real time using electron diffraction and could lead to a better understanding of these materials.

The researchers used a combination of ultrafast pulses of laser light that excite the atoms in a material lattice of gallium telluride, followed by exposing the lattice to an ultrafast pulse of an electron beam.

Layered van der Waals materials are of high interest for electronic and photonic applications, according to researchers at Penn State and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, in California, who provide new insights into the interactions of layered materials with laser and electron van der Waals materials are composed of strongly bonded layers of molecules with weak bonding between the layers.

When the laser beam shines onto the material, the heating generates the lowest-order longitudinal acoustic phonon mode, which creates a wobbling effect for the lattice.

added particle physics technology

What is JPMS? Introducing the Java Platform Module System

The Java Platform Module System (JPMS) is a code-level structure, so it doesn’t change the fact that we package Java into JAR files.

When running the Java compiler against modules, you specify the module path in similar fashion to the class path.

The switch tells Java to use directory as the module root, i.e., where to search for the modules.

This command when pointed at a class or directory will scan for what dependencies are there, and what modules those dependencies rely on.

One common error is this one: This is Java complaining that a class is not found, because it has migrated to a module without visibility to the consuming code.

published particle physics technology
Image of article 'Research Says We Smell in Stereo: What Does That Mean?         |                 |        Science'

Research Says We Smell in Stereo: What Does That Mean? | | Science

It is the ability to smell different scents in the air.

As stated earlier, the existence of two nostrils provides the theoretical capabilities required to discern the distance at which the source of the smell is located.

The researchers decided to study the volunteer’s sense of direction when presented with such a non-uniform odorant distribution.

The participants’ perceived direction of self-motion tended to be biased towards the nostril, which was sensing the higher concentration of the odorant.

More research needs to be carried out to figure out how our sense of smell can compute the directionality from the odour concentration.

published particle physics technology
Image of article 'A Brief History of the Web: From 17th Century Computers to Today's Digital Empires'

A Brief History of the Web: From 17th Century Computers to Today's Digital Empires

Thanks to Berners-Lee's decision to make his codes available royalty-free in perpetuity, his work provided the basis for what would come to be known as Web 1.0; the first wave of the Internet as we know it.

The first descriptions of a computer network resembling the World Wide Web of today appeared in J.C.R. Licklider's "Galactic Network" concept, which he advanced in 1962.

In 1942, the first automatic electronic digital computer was built by Iowa State College mathematics and physics professor John Vincent Atanasoff and graduate student Clifford Berry.

Lovelace is often credited with writing the first computer program, thanks to her algorithm for the computation of Bernoulli numbers using the analytical engine.

In fact, the first primitive computing devices were conceived as long ago as the 17th Century, with the earliest concepts for programmable computers emerging in the mid-19th Century.

Image of article 'Researchers Crack Superhard Material Puzzle From the 60s'

Researchers Crack Superhard Material Puzzle From the 60s

Skoltech researchers, together with industrial colleagues and academic partners, have recently solved a puzzle about the crystal structure of a superhard tungsten boride that has extremely useful industrial applications.

But the large difference in atomic scattering cross-sections (heavy tungsten compared to light boron) renders positions of boron atoms in transition metal borides hardly discernable by X-ray diffraction," Alexander Kvashnin, Skoltech senior research scientist and first author of the study, explained in a press release.

"If the material is disordered, the complete knowledge of its crystal structure (including the local arrangement of the atoms) can be obtained only using a combination of experimental techniques (X-ray, neutron diffraction) and computational methods of materials science."

In 2017, Andrei Osiptsov and Artem R. Oganov at Skoltech proposed searching for superhard materials to be used for producing composite cutters installed on bits, which are used for drilling applications.

After the idea was well-received, researchers led by Artem R. Oganov of Skoltech and MIPT went after the creation of WB , tungsten pentaboride, which they expected to be harder than the widely used tungsten carbide at the same time as having a comparable fracture toughness.

15 useful methods to get the most out of JavaScript arrays

The method executes a function once for each assigned value present in the array, taking four arguments: The first time the is called, and can be either the if provided, and the first value in the array if not.

The method creates a new array populated with the results of the function for each element in the array.

The method creates a new array with all the elements that pass the test implemented by the function.

The method returns the index of the first element in the array that satisfies the provided function.

The method applies a function to each element of the array and then flatten the result into an array.

Display analyst pours cold water on iPhone 12 Pro 120Hz display claims

Over the past few weeks there's been one iPhone 12 Pro that everyone could almost unanimously agree on – that it would feature a 120Hz ProMotion display.

But there was a dissenting voice in the form of display analyst Ross Young.

The fact that Young can't find any sources that believe 120Hz is coming in 2020 is interesting considering the number of little birdies that seem to have been speaking with leakers.

Only a few days ago we saw anonymous Twitter user Ice universe say that 120Hz is confirmed – assuming nothing goes wrong.

Ross Young says that 120Hz will arrive in 2021 which might suggest that Apple has hit some of the snags Ice universe warned against.

Image of article 'Honeywell makes world’s fastest Quantum Computer with quantum volume of 64'

Honeywell makes world’s fastest Quantum Computer with quantum volume of 64

Tony Uttley, the President of Honeywell Quantum Solutions, said, “What makes our quantum computers so powerful is having the highest quality qubits, with the lowest error rates.

Also read | Google claims 'Quantum supremacy', Sundar Pichai calls it 'hello world moment' The ion traps are controlled by a laser, which is aimed at trapping the charge from outside the sphere through a small glass window.

While traditional computing bits are in a state of either “0” or “1”, the qubits of a quantum system can be in both states at the same time.

The quantum volume is a measurement that takes into account the number of quantum bits (or qubits) of a machine as well as their connectivity and error rates.

Click here to join our channel (@expresstechnology) and stay updated with the latest tech news According to the company, the main focus while building the quantum computer was to eliminate the errors present within the system on smaller numbers of qubits and then working to scale up their number.

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Image of article 'Is teleportation possible? Yes, in the quantum world'

Is teleportation possible? Yes, in the quantum world

Creating entangled pairs of electron qubits that span long distances, which is required for teleportation, has proved challenging, though: while photons naturally propagate over long distances, electrons usually are confined to one place.

The results pave the way for future research on quantum teleportation involving spin states of all matter, not just photons, and provide more evidence for the surprisingly useful capabilities of individual electrons in qubit semiconductors.

"We provide evidence for 'entanglement swapping,' in which we create entanglement between two electrons even though the particles never interact, and 'quantum gate teleportation,' a potentially useful technique for quantum computing using teleportation," Nichol says.

In order to demonstrate quantum teleportation using electrons, the researchers harnessed a recently developed technique based on the principles of Heisenberg exchange coupling.

Scientists have recently demonstrated quantum teleportation by using electromagnetic photons to create remotely entangled pairs of qubits.

Scientists Say Most Likely Number of Contactable Alien Civilizations Is 36

An anonymous reader quotes a report from The Guardian:"They would be quite far away ... 17,000 light years is our calculation for the closest one," said Conselice.

"If we do find things closer ... then that would be a good indication that the lifespan of [communicating] civilizations is much longer than a hundred or a few hundred years, that an intelligent civilization can last for thousands or millions of years.

The more we find nearby, the better it looks for the long-term survival of our own civilization."

Image of article 'Engineers Turn Waste Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel and Plastics'

Engineers Turn Waste Carbon Dioxide Into Fuel and Plastics

The method involved the conversion of carbon dioxide waste produced in industrial settings into useful products.

"Syngas is often considered the chemical equivalent of Lego because the two building blocks —hydrogen and carbon monoxide— can be used in different ratios to make things like synthetic diesel, methanol, alcohol or plastics, which are very important industrial precursors."

Dr. Emma Lovell from UNSW's School of Chemical Engineering stated, "We used an open flame, which burns at 2000 degrees, to create nanoparticles of zinc oxide that can then be used to convert CO2, using electricity, into syngas.

SEE ALSO: GERMAN STARTUP CREATES OCEAN PLATFORM TO GENERATE POWER FROM WAVES, WIND, AND SOLAR Chemical engineers from the University of New South Wales showed that by making zinc oxide at high temperatures with a technique called flame spray pyrolysis, it is possible to create nanoparticles that take the role of the catalyst for turning carbon dioxide into "syngas."

New ways of going green and closing the loop are being talked about every day, and now, a team of scientists from Australia has developed a method that can convert harmful carbon dioxide into materials such as fuel and plastics.

PS5 Vs Xbox Series X (core differences) – What will you choose? fast loading or high resolution

Tomorrow morning, Sony will hold a press conference where it will unveil some information about the PS5.

Relative to the Xbox Series X, PS5 has more unresolved suspense.

A few days ago, developer Thomas Mahler once again revealed the major experience difference between the two consoles.

From this perspective, the comprehensive performance of XSX will have the UK suddenly launched a landing page for the Sony PS5.

Thirdly, the PS5 hard drive on the Amazon page starts at 825GB instead of 1T.

published particle physics technology